Following on from my post on Barry Eichengreen's book, click here to read a piece on the uses and abuses of history by the Economist's Buttonwood column. My book Banking in Crisis uses history to show the determinants of stable banking - shareholders have skin in the game or banks are constrained to investing in safe securities. It also uses history to show how severe the 2008 financial crisis was and why it happened. History is useful. However, history can also be abused. As Eichengreen recently quipped, 'societies cherry pick their histories'. Governments can use history to justify their policies even though the historical context and circumstances are totally different.
As an undergraduate, I was taught about the failure of Herstatt Bank in 1974 and Herstatt risk. This bank was only the 35th largest bank in Germany at the time so why would anyone be interested in studying its failure? Herstatt failed because of its involvement in risky foreign exchange business. When it closed its doors on 26 June 1974, counterparty banks (mainly in New York) had not received dollars due to them because of time-zone differences - this is known as settlement risk. The cross-jurisdictional implications of its failure resulted in the Bank for International Settlements setting up the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and Herstatt's failure was a key reason for the establishment of real-time gross settlements systems, which ensures that payments between two banks are executed in real time. The Bank of England's Ben Norman has an interesting post on Herstatt over at the Bank's new blog ( Bank Underground ). As well as giving an excellent overview of